Small Ruminants have been a major source of economic sustenance and financial cushioning, especially for economically weaker section of society. A variety of products are produced from sheep & goat farming ranging from wool/woolen products from sheep, meat, leather, manure and milk from sheep & goats. Approximately one lakh families are depending upon sheep rearing business, whereas 48 lakh families are engaged in goat rearing in the state. Both these occupations are mainly carried out by weaker sections of the society; however, due to local demand, consistent increase in the price of goat meat, low investment and assured market throughout the year, several businessmen, industrialists, progressive farmers have taken up goat rearing on commercial scale in the state.
As per the 20th livestock census, there are 26.80 lakh sheep & 106.04 lakh goats in the state. The district wise sheep & goat population in the state is as follows-
|Sr. No.||Name of District||Total Sheep (nos.)||Contribution %|
|Sr. No.||Name of District||Total Goat (nos.)||%|
Osmanabadi, Sangamneri, Kokan Kanyal and Berari are the predominant breeds of goat in Maharashtra. In view of ecology of state, goat breeds of Maharashtra are having good prolificacy, productivity & dressing percentage with well-accepted taste.
OsmanabadiRegn. No. INDIA_GOAT_1100_ OSMANABADI _06017
Sangamneri Goat-Regn. No. INDIA_GOAT_1100_ SANGAMNERI _06018
Berari GoatRegn. No. INDIA_GOAT_1100_BERARI _06023
Kokan KanyalRegn. No. INDIA_GOAT_1100_ KONKANKANYAL _06012
Deccani is the predominant sheep breed of Maharashtra with prominent ecotypes such as Lonand, Sangamneri, Solapuri (Sangola) and Kolhapuri. This breed is mainly reared for wool production. However, the income derived from meat production is much more than that of wool production as the wool produced is rough and coarse which is used only for production of local products like ghongadi, jen & blankets.
The sheep breeders from “Madgyal” and its adjacent villages of Jath Taluka, Dist. Sangali, have develop a fast growing & most beneficial mutton sheep breed called “Madgyal” by applying selection process. Since these sheep have promising quality of rapid weight gain, this breed should be promoted to increase the meat production of the state
Deccani SheepRegn No INDIA_SHEEP_0111_DECCANI_14021
Madgyal SheepNational recognition by registration from NBAGR is under progress
As per Statistical Report of Dept. of Animal Husbandry, Maharashtra State for the year 2016-17, Sheep and Goat meat production is about 12.13 % of total meat production in the state (including poulty) of which 0.01 % is form sheep and 12.12 % is from goats. Estimated average meat production per sheep and goat is 11 kg.
|Sr. No.||Species||No. of Animal Slaughtered (Lakh)||Average meat production / Animal (kgs)||Total meat production (“000” MT)||Percentage contribution|
It is observed that goat milk production for the state estimated during 2016-17 was 220.27 thousand MT. The average milk yield per goat in-milk per day is about 0.23 kg. Contribution of Goat Milk in total milk production is approximately 2 per cent.
|Sr. No.||Species||Estimated no. of Animals in milk (lakh)||Average daily milk yield/ animal-in-milk (In Kg.)||Total Milk Production (000 MT)|
The sheep of the state grow a coarse type of wool on their bodies. The sheep are shorn twice during a year. The first shearing is done during June & July. The second shearing is done after six months, of the first shearing.
The overall average estimated wool yield per sheep shorn is 0.655 gms. As per statistical report of Department of Animal Husbandry for the year 2016-17 the estimated wool production of the State during the year is 1406.651 M. T.
Breeding policy for goats primarily aims at increased meat production for meeting not only its local demand but also to explore the export avenues. At the same time, goat milk is also important in rural economy. This will also act as an added impetus to make the rural goat farming more sustainable. Hence, on this background desired genetic improvement amongst the goat population will help in reaping the benefits of dual purpose breeds through the use of identified breeds. Priority for this purpose will be given to selective breeding/up gradation of the recognized local indigenous breeds like Osmanabadi and Sangamneri. Efforts will be made for identifying the local indigenous goat breeds through rigorous phenotypic characterization. Besides using these local indigenous breeds, a strategy will be adopted to evolve sturdy goat, which would sustain and thrive in the heavy rainfall areas. Through up gradation of the identified sturdy goat and after finalizing desired phenotypic characters, such goat will be got registered with NBAGR as a specific breed and will be used for genetic up gradation of the local goat in heavy rainfall areas. Exotic/Indigenous dual purpose goat breeds with twinning trait will also be considered for improvement of nondescript goats through either importation or locally fetching suitable material on experimental basis.
To bring about desired genetic improvement in the local goats by using indigenous/exotic germplasm, assisted reproductive techniques will be effectively used. A.I. technology being supposedly a convenient tool for expanding the outreach of genetic improvement programme, will be adopted on controlled basis for this purpose. However, considering the low gestation period and reproductive life span in goat and also the other possible implications of use of artificial insemination technology in goat, natural service will obviously continue to be the major strategy for genetic up-gradation in goat. However, in order to hasten the process of genetic improvement in does by preferred use of fresh semen will be started on controlled basis in selected areas. The sets of bucks to be used for semen production will be analyzed cytogenetically viz. karyotyping etc. It would be ensured that the bucks will be subjected to field performance recording (FPR) trials. The results thus obtained will qualify them for further use under genetic improvement programme. Such bucks will be procured from State Agricultural Universities, MAFSU, NGOs, Breeders’ Associations as well as from the stock owned by the Punyashloak Ahilayadevi Sheli Va Mendhi Vikas Mahamandal, Pune. After reviewing various experiments regarding artificial insemination in does, in due course of time, further strategy for its wide spread use will be decided.
It will be based on Designing, promoting and encouraging APMC market like trade models in private, co-operative as well as corporate sectors, ensuring the trade of live animals (goats) at these trade models on live weight basis so as to fetch remunerative price to the producers vis-a vis ensuring affordable price to the buyers.
Emphasis will be laid on research-oriented promotion of goats for meat and milk production by introducing suitable/improved dual-purpose breeds of goats and multiplying them subsequently. MAFSU, State Agriculture Universities (S.A.U.) and Punyashloka Ahilyadevi Maharashtra Mendhi Va Sheli Vikas Mahamandal, Pune will put in cohesive efforts for propagation of such dual purpose breeds. Strategically, for genetic improvement in goats, superior indigenous genetic material will be used on priority basis. Besides, use of improved /exotic germplasm will also be permitted in consonance with the approved policy of GoI in context to import of genetic material. At field level, for selecting elite milker-goats, the system of organizing milk competitions will be put in place. Breeding of thus selected elite milker goats will be undertaken on pilot basis at the farms of Corporation, SAUs & MAFSU. Buck Shows will be organized for selection of elite males to be used for breeding. Alternative possible use of goat milk in consideration of its medicinal value will also be explored.
The self help groups of goat breeders/ farmers will be encouraged to undertake goat breeding activity and in carrying out genetic improvement in goats.
Breeding policy for sheep primarily aims at increased meat production for meeting not only its local demand but also to explore the export avenues. Hence, on this background impending genetic improvement of the breedable sheep will help in reaping the benefits of meat purpose breeds, through the use of identified breeds. Priority for genetic improvement will be given through selective breeding/ up gradation of the local non descript sheep population. Extensive use of Deccani breed of sheep will be sought for this purpose. Besides this, possible use of newly identified breed namely Madgyal from Jath, Dist. Sangli will also be explored for genetic upgradation of non-descript sheep in extended home tract. For selection of elite rams (to be used for breeding), organization of Ram Shows will be encouraged and promoted
To increase the prolificacy and productivity in sheep, genetic up gradation will be achieved by using superior germplasm, restricting to nondescript types in adherence to the guidelines issued by NBAGR from time to time.
Explorative efforts will be triggered for improvement in various desirable genetic traits on experimental/pilot basis viz. prolificacy/ fecundity, meat production, disease resistance and milk production, at organized farms only, identified by the Government. For this purpose possibility of using the superior germplasm of known indigenous breeds found in other states for the respective traits will be considered.
It will be ensured that, the migratory sheep flocks will be provided all time and efficient health cover facilities by the institutions of animal husbandry department.
To bring about desired genetic improvement in the local sheep by using indigenous germplasm, assisted reproductive techniques will be effectively used. A.I. technology being one of the tools for expanding the outreach of genetic improvement programme will be adopted on controlled basis for this purpose. However, considering the low gestation period and reproductive life span in sheep and also the other possible implications of use of artificial insemination technology in sheep, natural service will continue to be the strategy for genetic up-gradation in sheep. However, in order to hasten the process of genetic improvement in sheep through assisted reproductive techniques, Artificial Insemination in ewes will be started on controlled basis in selected areas using fresh semen. The sets of Rams to be used for semen production will be analyzed cytogenetically viz. karyotyping etc. It would be ensured that the Rams will be subjected to field performance recording (FPR) trials. The results thus obtained will qualify them for further use under genetic improvement programme. Such rams will be procured from State Agricultural Universities, MAFSU, NGOs, Breeders’ Associations as well as from the stock owned by the Punyashloak Ahilayadevi Mendhi Va Sheli Vikas Mahamandal, Pune. After review of various experiments regarding Artificial Insemination in ewes, in due course of time, further strategy for its wide spread use will be decided.
It will be based on Designing, promoting and encouraging APMC market like trade models in private, co-operative as well as corporate sectors, ensuring the trade of live animals (sheep) at these trade models on live weight basis so as to fetch remunerative price to the producers vis-a vis ensuring affordable price to the buyers.
For effective implementation of the policy on the development of sheep & goats, awareness will be created to establish breeders’ associations for indigenous breeds of sheep & goats. These associations will be entrusted with a much needed assignment / responsibility of conservation and multiplication of their breeds in the home tracts as well as the extended tracts of breeding. The associations shall be helped out so as to make them sound & consistently functional through need based monetary aid and technical assistance. Since conservation of the breed is multi-dimensional process involving breeding, feeding, management, health cover etc. incorporating the collaborative approach of all the concerned so as to achieve the conservation and genetic improvement process simultaneously is necessary. Efforts will be made to identify as well as redefine the breeding tracts and extended breeding tracts/ home tracts of the renowned indigenous sheep & goat breeds of the state. It would be ensured that in these identified tracts, pure line breeding and selective breeding using the superior rams/ bucks of the same breeds will be continued to be carried out strategically. However, suitable methodology will be worked out on scientific lines, for introduction of different breed in these identified breeding tracts/ adjoining areas, for which conscious decision would be taken only after considering the merits as well as limitations in specific areas.
Academic institutes in the state shall take care of the research and analysis on relevant parameters aimed for the development of sheep and goats benefitting to particular areas/regions and the evolved technology will be implemented for the benefit of the results.
Efforts will be made for recognition of the identified and identifiable breeds of both the species by NBAGR.
Punyashloak Ahilaya Devi Mendhi Va Sheli Vikas Mahamandal, Pune; shall be responsible to maintain farms for production of nucleus flocks of selected breeds; organize Breeder-Farmers and Breeder’s Association for production of stock to be distributed under its programmes and under its plan schemes by suitable strategy of buy back. It may act as supplier of nucleus flocks to such Breeder-Farmers and Breeder’s Associations for multiplication.
Punyashloak Ahilaya Devi Mendhi Va Shelii Vikas Mahamandal, Pune; MAFSU, Nagpur and Animal Science Division of State Agriculture Universities shall be the designated agencies responsible for conservation of native breeds of sheep and goat with element of public-sector investment.